Language review 11. Review of tenses
Verb Present simple Past simple
be am , is , are was , were
The past tense of:
• am , is } = was.
• are } = were.
Pronoun Verb be
I am , was
She / He / It is , was
They , We , You are , werePresent continuous and past continuous of verbs:
Verb Present continuous Past continuous
Work am working , is working
are working was working , were working
Read Am reading ,Is reading , are reading was reading , were reading
Past tense of verbs:
Verb Past tense
read readNote ملاحظة
If ( y ) preceded by consonant letter we must change ( y ) into ( I ).
إذا سبق حرف( y ) حرف ساكن نستبدله إلى ( I ).
Example : study = studied.
If ( y ) preceded by vowel letter we only add ( ed ).
إذا سبق حرف ( y ) حرف علّة نضيف ( ed ) فقط.
Regular verbs: أفعال منتظمة
Regular verb is added with ( ed ).
الأفعال المنتظمة يضاف إليها ( .( ed Examples:
Verb Past Past participle
work worked worked
play played played
try tried tried
add added addedIrregular verbsأفعال شاذة
Irregular verbs isn't added with ( ed ).
الأفعال الغير منتظمة ( الشاذة). لا يضاف إليها ( .( ed
Verb Past Past participle
be was , were been
buy bought bought
drink drank drunk
see saw seen
do did done
have / has had had
The present simple of have and live.
Pronoun Verb have Verb live
I have live
She , he , It has lives
They , We , You have livePresent perfect المضارع التام:Rule:
Subject + have / has + past participle
1. They have lived in Sana'a.
2. He has lived in Sana'a.Past perfectالماضي التام : Rule:
Subject + had + past participleExamples:
1. They had walked away
2. He had walked away.
2- Talking about two events in the past:
التحدث عن حدثين حدثوا في الماضي.
Ahmed failed his exam because he hadn't worked hard enough.Rule:
past simple + because + past perfect.Note:
The event that happened in past perfect happened first.
الحدث الذي حدث في الزمن الماضي التام حدث أولا.
1. Aisha couldn't do her home work because she had lost her book.
2. By 12 o'clock Fuad felt very hungry because he hadn't eaten his breakfast.
3. In the evening the men were very tired because they had walked far away.
4. Ali failed in the exam because he hadn't revised well.
3-Expressions of time with prepositions- at , in and on.
The usage of at استخدام
at + particular timeفي وقت معين: midday, noon, night, midnight, nine o'clock. e.g. at night
The usage of in استخدام
in + the + a part of a day في أجزاء اليوم: the morning, the afternoon, evening. e.g. in the afternoon.
in + month للأشهر: January, February, March, April, May etc..
e.g. in June.
in + specific yearفي سنة محددة : 1988, 1989, 1990 etc..
e.g. in 1999.
in + season of the year في فصول السنة: Spring, Summer, Autumn.
e.g. in Winter.
The usage of on استخدام
on + day of the weekفي أيام الأسبوع : Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday etc.
e.g. on Thursday.
4- making polite requestsجعل الطلب مؤدب :
1. Would you mind + verb + ing ?
2. Could / Would / Can ……… , please?
3. May …………… , please?
4. …………… , please. Examples:
1. Would you mind opening the door?
2. Would you mind reading this book?
3. Could you carry this for me, please?
4. Can you play tennis with me, please?
5. Sit down, please.
6. Come here, please.
7. May I have some tea, please?
8. May I come in, please?
Use polite replies استخدام إجابات مؤدبة
Not at all / certainly.
• Would you mind opening the door?
Not at all.
• Could you carry this for me, please?
Language Review 2
1- saying where things are: Prepositional phrases
In the middle: في المنتصف e.g.
In front of:أمام e.g.
On the right: في جهة اليمين e.g.
Opposite:في الجهة المعاتحذيرة e.g.
To the left of:في جهة اليسار e.g.
In the corner to the right: في الزاوية إلى اليمين e.g.
Next to:بجانب e.g.2- Direct and indirect questions
In the direct questions, the verb* should precede subject.
في السؤال المباشر لابد أن يسبق الفعل الإسم. Rule:
……Verb* + subject ………..?
e.g. Where shall you go?
Verb* means auxiliary verb الفعل المساعد which includesيتضمن the various formsصيغ مختلفة of be (am, is, are), can, will, shall, have, may, and ought.
In the indirect questions, the subject should precede the verb*.
في السؤال الغير المباشر لابد أن يسبق الإسم الفعل.
We always use these phrases below when we want to design indirect question.
دائما نستخدم العبارات أدناه في صياغة السؤال الغير مباشر.
Can / Could you tell me -- Will / Would you tell me -- Do you know. Rule:
One of these above +…… subject + verb?
e.g. Can you tell me where you shall go?Examples:
Where can I buy toothpaste?